Diabetes in India
Diabetes is seen in 11.8% of the Indian population. There are an estimated 72.96 million cases of
diabetes in adult population of India Risk of diabetes increases above 40 years. Nowadays
there has been a rise in type 2 diabetes among young adults between 30 to 40 years. Still a
major population of diabetics are undiagnosed. Diabetes mellitus and related complications
pose a major challenge to society.
61% – 70% of energy intake in Indians is through carbohydrates present in diet. High
carbohydrate diet leads to increased blood glucose levels and increased insulin
requirement. Family history, Sedentary lifestyle, overeating, lack of exercise and poor sleep,
all contribute to diabetes.
Signs and symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus
⚠️ Increased thirst
⚠️ Frequent urination
⚠️ Extreme hunger
⚠️ Unexplained weight loss
⚠️ Blurred vision
⚠️ Slow-healing sores
⚠️ Frequent infections, skin infections and Urinary infection
Foods and drinks to limit include
❌ Fried foods and other foods high in saturated fat and trans fat
❌ Foods high in salt, also called sodium
❌ Sweets, such as baked goods, candy, and ice cream
❌ Beverages with added sugars, such as juice, regular soda, and regular sports or energy drinksDiets may vary. Please get confirmation from your diabetes physician
HbA1c is the best diagnostic tool for Diabetes Mellitus. Other tests like Fasting blood glucose, post prandial blood glucose, fasting serum insulin, C- Peptide, insulin antibody & thyroid function test are necessary to identify the underlying cause of Diabetes Mellitus and for treatment planning. Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) devices are used to achieve better diabetic control.
Lifestyle modification, diet & exercise plays vital role in management of diabetes. Oral Hypoglycaemic Agents (OHA) are used as the primary treatment modality. In later stages if insulin deficiency is identified insulin therapy is initiated.
Poor glycaemic control can lead to diabetes related complications like
- Cardiovascular disease – Angina, heart attack, stroke and narrowing of arteries (atherosclerosis)
- Nerve damage (Diabetic neuropathy) – Tingling, numbness, burning or pain that usually begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upward.
- Kidney damage (Diabetic nephropathy) – Severe damage can lead to kidney failure or irreversible end-stage kidney disease, which may require dialysis or a kidney transplant.
- Eye damage (Diabetic retinopathy)
- Alzheimer’s disease – Type 2 diabetes may increase the risk of dementia
Anyone with or without family history can develop diabetes mellitus. Balanced diet & regular exercise are vital for healthy living. Overweight and obese individuals are more prone to develop diabetes. Good 8 hours of sleep at night (between 8 PM – 6 PM) and stress free life is also essential to prevent diabetes.
Take Control of you diabetic and reverse it? Our Diabetologist will assist you further at Astra specialty hospital. To make an appointment, Click here